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Factsheet / Treaties, Rights and Title

An Annotated Guide to the (Mal)-Interpretation of Confederation Era Treaties in Canada

The national conversation on confederation-era treaties, and their neglect by Canada, is long overdue. Gina Starblanket and Dallas Hunt make this clear in the Yellowhead Institute Special Report, The Numbered Treaties, COVID-19 & the Politics of Life. While they discuss healthcare and mutual aid specifically, there is so much misinterpretation and misunderstanding around treaties generally. This annotation of a Numbered Treaty reveals the difference in expectations between settlers and First Nations, and the violences that have accompanied the enforcement of a very narrow interpretation of treaties. This narrow interpretation excludes First Nation perspectives but endures into contemporary policy and law.

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